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(( 最新 PDF )): IEC 60076-2:2011 Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise for

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(( 最新 PDF )):          - 100 页数         IEC 60076-2
        Active         2011.02.01         Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise for liquid-immersed transformers - Edition 3.0
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CONTENTS
FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4
1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 6
2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 6
3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 6
4 Cooling methods .............................................................................................................. 8
4.1 Identification symbols .............................................................................................. 8
4.2 Transformers with alternative cooling methods ........................................................ 9
5 Normal cooling conditions................................................................................................. 9
5.1 Air-cooled transformers ........................................................................................... 9
5.2 Water-cooled transformers .................................................................................... 10
6 Temperature rise limits ................................................................................................... 10
6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10
6.2 Temperature rise limits at rated power .................................................................. 10
6.3 Modified requirements for special cooling conditions ............................................. 12
6.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 12
6.3.2 Air-cooled transformers ............................................................................. 12
6.3.3 Water-cooled transformers ........................................................................ 13
6.4 Temperature rise during a specified load cycle ...................................................... 13
7 Temperature rise tests .................................................................................................... 13
7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13
7.2 Temperature of the cooling media ......................................................................... 13
7.2.1 Ambient temperature ................................................................................. 13
7.2.2 Water temperature ..................................................................................... 14
7.3 Test methods for temperature rise determination ................................................... 14
7.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 14
7.3.2 Test by short-circuit method for two winding transformers.......................... 14
7.3.3 Test modification for particular transformers .............................................. 15
7.4 Determination of liquid temperatures ..................................................................... 16
7.4.1 Top-liquid temperature .............................................................................. 16
7.4.2 Bottom and average liquid temperatures .................................................... 17
7.5 Determination of top, average and bottom liquid temperature rises ........................ 18
7.6 Determination of average winding temperature ...................................................... 18
7.7 Determination of winding resistance at the instant of shutdown ............................. 19
7.8 Determination of average winding temperature rise at the instant of
shutdown ............................................................................................................... 19
7.9 Determination of the average winding to liquid temperature gradient ..................... 19
7.10 Determination of the hot-spot winding temperature rise ......................................... 20
7.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 20
7.10.2 Determination by calculation ...................................................................... 20
7.10.3 Direct measurement during the temperature rise test ................................. 20
7.11 Uncertainties affecting the results of the temperature rise test............................... 21
7.12 Dissolved gas-in-oil analysis ................................................................................. 21
7.13 Corrections............................................................................................................ 21
Annex A (informative) Hot-spot winding temperature rise determination for OFAF and
OFWF cooled transformers based on the top-liquid temperature in tank ................................ 23
Annex B (informative) Methods to estimate the hot-spot winding temperature rises.............. 25 --```,``,,,``,`,,,``,,,`,,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
60076-2  IEC:2011 – 3 –
Annex C (informative) Techniques used in temperature rise testing of liquid-immersed
transformers ......................................................................................................................... 30
Annex D (informative) Dissolved gases analysis for the detection of local overheating ......... 39
Annex E (informative) Application of optical fibre sensors for winding hot-spot
measurements ...................................................................................................................... 43
Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 47
Figure B.1 – Temperature rise distribution model for ON cooling methods ............................ 26
Figure B.2 – Value of factor Q as a function of rated power and strand height (W) ............... 27
Figure B.3 – Typical liquid flow paths in a disk winding with diverting washers ...................... 28
Figure C.1 – Recommended circuit for transformers with a low resistance winding
using two separate direct current sources, one for each winding ........................................... 32
Figure C.2 – Alternative recommended circuit using only one direct current source for
both windings....................................................................................................................... 32
Figure C.3 – Average winding temperature variation after shutdown ..................................... 33
Figure C.4 – Extrapolation of the cooling down curve, using the fitting curve
( ) w
w 0
t/T
t A kt Be

θ = − + .......................................................................................................... 38
Figure E.1 – Optical fibre sensor application for a disk winding of core type transformer ....... 45
Figure E.2 – Optical fibre sensor application for a transposed cable of core type
transformer ........................................................................................................................... 45
Figure E.3 – Modality of optical fibre sensor application in the winding spacer of core
type transformer ................................................................................................................... 46
Figure E.4 – Optical fibre sensor application for high voltage winding of shell type
transformer ........................................................................................................................... 46
Table 1 – Temperature rise limits .......................................................................................... 11
Table 2 – Recommended values of temperature rise corrections in case of special
service conditions ................................................................................................................. 12
Table 3 – Exponents for the corrections of temperature rise test results ............................... 22
Table A.1 – Hot-spot winding temperature rises for some specific transformers
determined from conventional heat run test data combined with calculated hot-spot
winding temperature rise, and from direct fibre-optic measurements ..................................... 24
Table C.1 – Example of cooling down curve calculation spreadsheet .................................... 37
Table D.1 – Minimum detectable value SD of gases in oil ...................................................... 40
Table D.2 – Admissible limits for gas rate increases ............................................................. 41
Table E.1 – Minimum recommended number of sensors for three-phase transformers .......... 43
Table E.2 – Minimum recommended number of sensors for single-phase transformers ......... 43
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